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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 22 Aug 2017, 15:41 
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I guess a rope beat a good shotgun that day..

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 Post subject: Today in history. 8-23
PostPosted: 23 Aug 2017, 10:48 
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Pete Rose gets booted from baseball....

On this day in 1989, as punishment for betting on baseball, Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose accepts a settlement that includes a lifetime ban from the game. A heated debate continues to rage as to whether Rose, a former player who remains the game’s all-time hits leader, should be given a second chance.

Although gambling on a sport you play or coach is now considered unacceptable in nearly all levels of sport, it was relatively common among those connected with baseball in the early 20th century. Some of baseball’s most talented and well-known players, such as “Turkey” Mike Donlin and Hal Chase, as well as manager John McGraw, who publicly won $400 dollars when his New York Giants won the World Series in 1905, were often suspected of gambling on their own games. Chase was considered a dangerous man to have on a team because of his willingness to make extra money by dropping fly balls or misplaying first base. This all changed, however, after the White Sox purposefully lost the World Series in 1919 for a payoff from gambler Arnold Rothstein. Outraged, a group of baseball’s faithful–including American League Commissioner Ban Johnson, former player and manager Christy Matthewson and White Sox owner Charles Comiskey, among others–made it a priority to clean up the game and repair its reputation. Kenesaw Mountain Landis, a former federal judge, was hired as Major League Baseball’s first commissioner to crack down on corruption.

One of Landis’ first moves was to ban eight White Sox players found to be involved in the World Series betting scandal from the game for life, including Chase and “Shoeless” Joe Jackson, one of the greatest players in baseball history. Major League Baseball Rule 21(d) now states that a player faces a ban of one year for betting on any baseball game, and a lifetime ban for betting on his own team. In addition, signs posted prominently in every clubhouse remind players that gambling is not permitted.

It was known in baseball circles since the 1970s that Pete Rose had a gambling problem. Although at first he bet only on horse races and football games, allegations surfaced in early 1989 that Rose was not only betting on baseball, but on his own team. Major League Baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti began an inquiry, and hired Washington lawyer John Dowd to head the investigation. Dowd compiled hundreds of hours of testimony from numerous sources that detailed Rose’s history of gambling on baseball while serving as the manager of the Cincinnati Reds, including betting on his own team.

Although Rose continued to proclaim his innocence, he was eventually persuaded to accept a settlement that included a lifetime ban from the game. At a subsequent press conference, Giamatti characterized Rose’s acceptance of the ban as a no-contest plea to the charges against him.

In 2004, after years of repeated denials, Rose published My Prison Without Bars, in which he finally confessed to gambling on the Reds, though he added that had always bet on the Reds to win. Because of the lifetime ban, Rose cannot work in Major League Baseball and, despite his stellar playing career, he is not eligible for the Hall of Fame.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 8-24
PostPosted: 24 Aug 2017, 09:25 
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79
Vesuvius erupts

After centuries of dormancy, Mount Vesuvius erupts in southern Italy, devastating the prosperous Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing thousands. The cities, buried under a thick layer of volcanic material and mud, were never rebuilt and largely forgotten in the course of history. In the 18th century, Pompeii and Herculaneum were rediscovered and excavated, providing an unprecedented archaeological record of the everyday life of an ancient civilization, startlingly preserved in sudden death.

The ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum thrived near the base of Mount Vesuvius at the Bay of Naples. In the time of the early Roman Empire, 20,000 people lived in Pompeii, including merchants, manufacturers, and farmers who exploited the rich soil of the region with numerous vineyards and orchards. None suspected that the black fertile earth was the legacy of earlier eruptions of Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum was a city of 5,000 and a favorite summer destination for rich Romans. Named for the mythic hero Hercules, Herculaneum housed opulent villas and grand Roman baths. Gambling artifacts found in Herculaneum and a brothel unearthed in Pompeii attest to the decadent nature of the cities. There were smaller resort communities in the area as well, such as the quiet little town of Stabiae.

At noon on August 24, 79 A.D., this pleasure and prosperity came to an end when the peak of Mount Vesuvius exploded, propelling a 10-mile mushroom cloud of ash and pumice into the stratosphere. For the next 12 hours, volcanic ash and a hail of pumice stones up to 3 inches in diameter showered Pompeii, forcing the city’s occupants to flee in terror. Some 2,000 people stayed in Pompeii, holed up in cellars or stone structures, hoping to wait out the eruption.

A westerly wind protected Herculaneum from the initial stage of the eruption, but then a giant cloud of hot ash and gas surged down the western flank of Vesuvius, engulfing the city and burning or asphyxiating all who remained. This lethal cloud was followed by a flood of volcanic mud and rock, burying the city.

The people who remained in Pompeii were killed on the morning of August 25 when a cloud of toxic gas poured into the city, suffocating all that remained. A flow of rock and ash followed, collapsing roofs and walls and burying the dead.

Much of what we know about the eruption comes from an account by Pliny the Younger, who was staying west along the Bay of Naples when Vesuvius exploded. In two letters to the historian Tacitus, he told of how “people covered their heads with pillows, the only defense against a shower of stones,” and of how “a dark and horrible cloud charged with combustible matter suddenly broke and set forth. Some bewailed their own fate. Others prayed to die.” Pliny, only 17 at the time, escaped the catastrophe and later became a noted Roman writer and administrator. His uncle, Pliny the Elder, was less lucky. Pliny the Elder, a celebrated naturalist, at the time of the eruption was the commander of the Roman fleet in the Bay of Naples. After Vesuvius exploded, he took his boats across the bay to Stabiae, to investigate the eruption and reassure terrified citizens. After going ashore, he was overcome by toxic gas and died.

According to Pliny the Younger’s account, the eruption lasted 18 hours. Pompeii was buried under 14 to 17 feet of ash and pumice, and the nearby seacoast was drastically changed. Herculaneum was buried under more than 60 feet of mud and volcanic material. Some residents of Pompeii later returned to dig out their destroyed homes and salvage their valuables, but many treasures were left and then forgotten.

In the 18th century, a well digger unearthed a marble statue on the site of Herculaneum. The local government excavated some other valuable art objects, but the project was abandoned. In 1748, a farmer found traces of Pompeii beneath his vineyard. Since then, excavations have gone on nearly without interruption until the present. In 1927, the Italian government resumed the excavation of Herculaneum, retrieving numerous art treasures, including bronze and marble statues and paintings.

The remains of 2,000 men, women, and children were found at Pompeii. After perishing from asphyxiation, their bodies were covered with ash that hardened and preserved the outline of their bodies. Later, their bodies decomposed to skeletal remains, leaving a kind of plaster mold behind. Archaeologists who found these molds filled the hollows with plaster, revealing in grim detail the death pose of the victims of Vesuvius. The rest of the city is likewise frozen in time, and ordinary objects that tell the story of everyday life in Pompeii are as valuable to archaeologists as the great unearthed statues and frescoes. It was not until 1982 that the first human remains were found at Herculaneum, and these hundreds of skeletons bear ghastly burn marks that testifies to horrifying deaths.

Today, Mount Vesuvius is the only active volcano on the European mainland. Its last eruption was in 1944 and its last major eruption was in 1631. Another eruption is expected in the near future, would could be devastating for the 700,000 people who live in the “death zones” around Vesuvius.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 8-25
PostPosted: 25 Aug 2017, 10:32 
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1835
The Great Moon Hoax

On this day in 1835, the first in a series of six articles announcing the supposed discovery of life on the moon appears in the New York Sun newspaper.

Known collectively as “The Great Moon Hoax,” the articles were supposedly reprinted from the Edinburgh Journal of Science. The byline was Dr. Andrew Grant, described as a colleague of Sir John Herschel, a famous astronomer of the day. Herschel had in fact traveled to Capetown, South Africa, in January 1834 to set up an observatory with a powerful new telescope. As Grant described it, Herschel had found evidence of life forms on the moon, including such fantastic animals as unicorns, two-legged beavers and furry, winged humanoids resembling bats. The articles also offered vivid description of the moon’s geography, complete with massive craters, enormous amethyst crystals, rushing rivers and lush vegetation.

The New York Sun, founded in 1833, was one of the new “penny press” papers that appealed to a wider audience with a cheaper price and a more narrative style of journalism. From the day the first moon hoax article was released, sales of the paper shot up considerably. It was exciting stuff, and readers lapped it up. The only problem was that none of it was true. The Edinburgh Journal of Science had stopped publication years earlier, and Grant was a fictional character. The articles were most likely written by Richard Adams Locke, a Sun reporter educated at Cambridge University. Intended as satire, they were designed to poke fun at earlier, serious speculations about extraterrestrial life, particularly those of Reverend Thomas Dick, a popular science writer who claimed in his bestselling books that the moon alone had 4.2 billion inhabitants.

Readers were completely taken in by the story, however, and failed to recognize it as satire. The craze over Herschel’s supposed discoveries even fooled a committee of Yale University scientists, who traveled to New York in search of the Edinburgh Journal articles. After Sun employees sent them back and forth between the printing and editorial offices, hoping to discourage them, the scientists returned to New Haven without realizing they had been tricked.

On September 16, 1835, the Sun admitted the articles had been a hoax. People were generally amused by the whole thing, and sales of the paper didn’t suffer. The Sun continued operation until 1950, when it merged with the New York World-Telegram. The merger folded in 1967. A new New York Sun newspaper was founded in 2002, but it has no relation to the original.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 8-26
PostPosted: 26 Aug 2017, 11:35 
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1939
First televised Major League baseball game

On this day in 1939, the first televised Major League baseball game is broadcast on station W2XBS, the station that was to become WNBC-TV. Announcer Red Barber called the game between the Cincinnati Reds and the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn, New York.

At the time, television was still in its infancy. Regular programming did not yet exist, and very few people owned television sets–there were only about 400 in the New York area. Not until 1946 did regular network broadcasting catch on in the United States, and only in the mid-1950s did television sets become more common in the American household.

In 1939, the World’s Fair–which was being held in New York–became the catalyst for the historic broadcast. The television was one of fair’s prize exhibits, and organizers believed that the Dodgers-Reds doubleheader on August 26 was the perfect event to showcase America’s grasp on the new technology.

By today’s standards, the video coverage was somewhat crude. There were only two stationary camera angles: The first was placed down the third base line to pick up infield throws to first, and the second was placed high above home plate to get an extensive view of the field. It was also difficult to capture fast-moving plays: Swinging bats looked like paper fans, and the ball was all but invisible during pitches and hits.

Nevertheless, the experiment was a success, driving interest in the development of television technology, particularly for sporting events. Though baseball owners were initially concerned that televising baseball would sap actual attendance, they soon warmed to the idea, and the possibilities for revenue generation that came with increased exposure of the game, including the sale of rights to air certain teams or games and television advertising.

Today, televised sports is a multi-billion dollar industry, with technology that gives viewers an astounding amount of visual and audio detail. Cameras are now so precise that they can capture the way a ball changes shape when struck by a bat, and athletes are wired to pick up field-level and sideline conversation.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 8-27
PostPosted: 27 Aug 2017, 10:00 
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1883
Krakatau explodes

The most powerful volcanic eruption in recorded history occurs on Krakatau (also called Krakatoa), a small, uninhabited volcanic island located west of Sumatra in Indonesia, on this day in 1883. Heard 3,000 miles away, the explosions threw five cubic miles of earth 50 miles into the air, created 120-foot tsunamis and killed 36,000 people.

Krakatau exhibited its first stirrings in more than 200 years on May 20, 1883. A German warship passing by reported a seven-mile high cloud of ash and dust over Krakatau. For the next two months, similar explosions would be witnessed by commercial liners and natives on nearby Java and Sumatra. With little to no idea of the impending catastrophe, the local inhabitants greeted the volcanic activity with festive excitement.

On August 26 and August 27, excitement turned to horror as Krakatau literally blew itself apart, setting off a chain of natural disasters that would be felt around the world for years to come. An enormous blast on the afternoon of August 26 destroyed the northern two-thirds of the island; as it plunged into the Sunda Strait, between the Java Sea and Indian Ocean, the gushing mountain generated a series of pyroclastic flows (fast-moving fluid bodies of molten gas, ash and rock) and monstrous tsunamis that swept over nearby coastlines. Four more eruptions beginning at 5:30 a.m. the following day proved cataclysmic. The explosions could be heard as far as 3,000 miles away, and ash was propelled to a height of 50 miles. Fine dust from the explosion drifted around the earth, causing spectacular sunsets and forming an atmospheric veil that lowered temperatures worldwide by several degrees.

Of the estimated 36,000 deaths resulting from the eruption, at least 31,000 were caused by the tsunamis created when much of the island fell into the water. The greatest of these waves measured 120 feet high, and washed over nearby islands, stripping away vegetation and carrying people out to sea. Another 4,500 people were scorched to death from the pyroclastic flows that rolled over the sea, stretching as far as 40 miles, according to some sources.

In addition to Krakatau, which is still active, Indonesia has another 130 active volcanoes, the most of any country in the world.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 8-28
PostPosted: 28 Aug 2017, 08:17 
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1869
Three leave Powell’s Grand Canyon expedition

Convinced they will have a better chance surviving the desert than the raging rapids that lay ahead, three men leave John Wesley Powell’s expedition through the Grand Canyon and scale the cliffs to the plateau above.

Though it turned out the men had made a serious mistake, they can hardly be faulted for believing that Powell’s plan to float the brutal rapids was suicidal. Powell, a one-armed Civil War veteran and self-trained naturalist, had embarked on his daring descent of the mighty Colorado River three months earlier. Accompanied by 11 men in four wooden boats, he led the expedition through the Grand Canyon and over punishing rapids that many would hesitate to run even with modern rafts.

The worst was yet to come. Near the lower end of the canyon, the party heard the roar of giant rapids. Moving to shore, they explored on foot and saw, in the words of one man, “the worst rapids yet.” Powell agreed, writing that, “The billows are huge and I fear our boats could not ride them…There is discontent in the camp tonight and I fear some of the party will take to the mountains but hope not.”

The next day, three of Powell’s men did leave. Convinced that the rapids were impassable, they decided to take their chances crossing the harsh desert lands above the canyon rims. On this day in 1869, Seneca Howland, O.G. Howland, and William H. Dunn said goodbye to Powell and the other men and began the long climb up out of the Grand Canyon. The remaining members of the party steeled themselves, climbed into boats, and pushed off into the wild rapids.

Amazingly, all of them survived and the expedition emerged from the canyon the next day. When he reached the nearest settlement, Powell learned that the three men who left had been less fortunate–they encountered a war party of Shivwit Indians and were killed. Ironically, the three murders were initially seen as more newsworthy than Powell’s feat and the expedition gained valuable publicity. When Powell embarked on his second trip through the Grand Canyon in 1871, the publicity from the first trip had insured that the second voyage was far better financed than the first.


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 Post subject: Today in history.
PostPosted: 29 Aug 2017, 08:24 
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2005
Hurricane Katrina wreaks havoc on Gulf Coast

On this day in 2005, Hurricane Katrina, the most destructive hurricane ever to hit the United States, makes landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast, near New Orleans, Louisiana. Katrina, which formed over the Bahamas on August 23, was the third major hurricane of a particularly severe 2005 season. The storm caused massive devastation in and around the city of New Orleans and major damage elsewhere in Louisiana and along the coasts of Mississippi and Alabama.

On August 28, Katrina briefly achieved Category 5 status—becoming the second Category 5 storm of the season—and that day, the National Weather Service predicted “devastating” damage to the Gulf region. Although New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin then ordered a mandatory evacuation of the city, an estimated 150,000 people who either could not or would not leave stayed behind. The next day, Katrina made landfall as a Category 4 storm, bringing with it sustained winds of 145 mph with gusts of up to 175 mph and massive storm surges that overwhelmed the city’s levees, flooding 80 percent of the city, as well as many of the outlying neighborhoods, or parishes.

Without electricity or basic supplies, tens of thousands of people sought shelter in the New Orleans Convention Center and Louisiana Superdome. At both sites, conditions rapidly deteriorated amid overcrowding and a lack of supplies. Almost unbelievably, it took more than two days for a full-scale relief effort to be launched. In the meantime, frustration mounted as stranded residents suffered from heat, hunger, crime and a lack of medical care. As news networks broadcast scenes from the devastated city to the world, it became obvious that a vast majority of the victims were African-American and poor, leading to difficult questions among the public about the state of racial equality in the United States. The federal government and President George W. Bush were roundly criticized for what was perceived as their slow response to the disaster. The head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) resigned amid the ensuing controversy.

Finally, on September 1, an evacuation of stranded residents to the Astrodome in Houston, Texas, began. Military convoys arrived with supplies and the National Guard was charged with halting lawlessness. As efforts began to collect and identify corpses, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began fixing the damage to New Orleans’ levee system; the repairs were completed on September 6, allowing crews to begin pumping water out of the city.

Hurricane Katrina was the most costly natural disaster in American history, with damages of more than $80 billion. In all, more than 1,800 people died, 1 million more were displaced and 400,000 lost their jobs as a result of the disaster. Even one year later, despite efforts to rebuild the city, large parts of New Orleans remained heavily damaged and thousands remained homeless or unemployed.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 8-30
PostPosted: 30 Aug 2017, 09:44 
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1965
Casey Stengel retires

On this day in 1965, New York Mets Manager Casey Stengel announces his retirement, ending his 56-year career in professional baseball. The 75-year-old Stengel had broken his hip in a fall the previous month, and was instructed by his doctor that resuming the duties of manager would take too great a toll on his health.

Charles Dillon “Casey” Stengel made his big league debut as an outfielder with John McGraw’s New York Giants in 1912. He parlayed his guts and guile at the plate into a 14-year playing career in the National League. His greatest moment as a player came in the 1923 World Series with the Giants. With two outs in the ninth inning, Stengel won Game 1 with an inside-the-park home run. He also hit a game-winning homer in Game 3, and for the series, Stengel hit an impressive .417 with two home runs and four runs batted in, though the Giants lost to the Yankees four games to two. For his career, Stengel hit a respectable .284, with a .393 average in his three World Series appearances.

Stengel’s real fame came as a manager. Though he had only middling success with the Brooklyn Dodgers (1934-1936) and Boston Braves (1938-1943), he managed to score a job with the New York Yankees in 1949 to replace the retiring Joe McCarthy, the winningest manager in major league history. Where he had previously managed only struggling teams, Stengel now had a roster of great players at his disposal. He made great use of platooning players, sitting right-handed hitters against right-handed pitchers and vice versa. His record of 1149 wins versus 696 losses with the Yankees over the next 12 seasons was among the greatest in managerial history, and included 10 American League pennants and seven World Series victories. After a heartbreaking loss in Game 7 of the 1960 World Series to the Pittsburgh Pirates, however, the Yankees replaced the 70-year-old skipper with Ralph Houk, believing Stengel was simply too old to manage. Stengel responded: “I’ll never make the mistake of being 70 again.”

In 1962, the New York Mets, an expansion team, hired Stengel as manager. That team went 40-120, the worst record in major league history. They simply did not have good players, but Stengel held on for four seasons, trying to craft a contender out of a mix of young players lacking major league skill and washed-up veterans. All the while, the “Ol’ Perfesser,” as he as known, confounded and amused the press with his trademark doublespeak or “Stengelese,” including lines like, “They say it can’t be done, but it don’t always work.” It was no use, however: the Mets remained a losing team, and Stengel, exhausted by a long career, could sometimes be found napping on the bench.

Stengel was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame as a manager in 1966. His record of five World Series victories in a row from 1949 to 1953 remains a standard for excellence in the major leagues.


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 Post subject: Today in history.8-31
PostPosted: 31 Aug 2017, 08:27 
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1955
William Cobb demonstrates first solar-powered car

On this day in 1955, William G. Cobb of the General Motors Corp. (GM) demonstrates his 15-inch-long “Sunmobile,” the world’s first solar-powered automobile, at the General Motors Powerama auto show held in Chicago, Illinois.

Cobb’s Sunmobile introduced, however briefly, the field of photovoltaics–the process by which the sun’s rays are converted into electricity when exposed to certain surfaces–into the gasoline-drenched automotive industry. When sunlight hit 12 photoelectric cells made of selenium (a nonmetal substance with conducting properties) built into the Sunmobile, an electric current was produced that in turn powered a tiny motor. The motor turned the vehicle’s driveshaft, which was connected to its rear axle by a pulley. Visitors to the month-long, $7 million Powerama marveled at some 250 free exhibits spread over 1 million square feet of space on the shores of Lake Michigan. In addition to Cobb’s futuristic mini-automobile, Powerama visitors were treated to an impressive display of GM’s diesel-fueled empire, from oil wells and cotton gins to submarines and other military equipment.

Today, more than a half-century after Cobb debuted the Sunmobile, a mass-produced solar car has yet to hit the market anywhere in the world. Solar-car competitions are held worldwide, however, in which design teams pit their sun-powered creations (also known as photovoltaic or PV cars) against each other in road races such as the 2008 North American Solar Challenge, a 2,400-mile drive from Dallas, Texas, to Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

In early 2009, The Nikkei, a Japanese business daily, reported that Toyota Motor Corp. was secretly developing a vehicle that would be powered totally by solar energy. Hurt by a growing global financial crisis and a surge in the Japanese yen relative to other currencies, Toyota had announced in late 2008 that it was expecting its first operating loss in 70 years. Despite hard economic times, Toyota (which in 1997 launched the Prius, the world’s first mass-produced hybrid vehicle) has no plans to relinquish its reputation as an automotive industry leader in green technology. The company uses solar panels to produce some of its own electricity at its Tsutsumi plant in central Japan, and in mid-2008 announced that it would install solar panels on the roof of the next generation of its groundbreaking electric-gasoline hybrid Prius cars. The panels would supply part of the 2 to 5 kilowatts needed to power the car’s air conditioning system.

According to The Nikkei, Toyota’s planned solar car is not expected to hit the market for years. The electric vehicle will get some of its power from solar cells on the vehicle, and will be recharged with electricity generated from solar panels on the roofs of car owners’ homes.


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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 31 Aug 2017, 08:49 
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I don't think they really want to develop this technology ......as long as they can sell us that high dollar fuel .....

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 Post subject: Today in history. 9-1
PostPosted: 01 Sep 2017, 19:08 
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1836
First Anglo women settle west of the Rockies

On this day in 1836, Narcissa Whitman arrives in Walla Walla, Washington, becoming one of the first Anglo women to settle west of the Rocky Mountains.

Narcissa and Marcus Whitman, along with their close friends Eliza and Henry Spalding, had departed from New York earlier that year on the long overland journey to the far western edge of the continent. The two couples were missionaries, and Narcissa wrote that they were determined to convert the “benighted ones” living in “the thick darkness of heathenism” to Christianity. That summer when they crossed the continental divide at South Pass, Narcissa and Eliza became the first Anglo-American women in history to travel west of the Rocky Mountains. Toward the end of their difficult 1,800-mile overland journey, the two couples split up, with the Spaldings heading for Idaho while Narcissa and her husband traveled to a settlement near present-day Walla Walla, Washington, where they established a mission for the Cayuse Indians. For 11 years the couples’ missionary work went well, and they succeeded in converting many of the Cayuse to Christianity. But in 1847, a devastating measles epidemic swept through the area, killing many of the Cayuse, who had no immunity to the disease, while leaving most of the white people at the mission suspiciously unharmed. Convinced that the missionaries or their god had cursed them with an evil plague, in November of 1847, a band of Cayuse attacked the mission and killed 14 people, including Narcissa and her husband. Narcissa Whitman thus became not only one of the first white women to live in the Far West, but also one of the first white women to die there.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 9-2
PostPosted: 02 Sep 2017, 09:58 
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1666
Great Fire of London begins

In the early morning hours, the Great Fire of London breaks out in the house of King Charles II’s baker on Pudding Lane near London Bridge. It soon spread to Thames Street, where warehouses filled with combustibles and a strong easterly wind transformed the blaze into an inferno. When the Great Fire finally was extinguished on September 6, more than four-fifths of London was destroyed. Miraculously, only 16 people were known to have died.

The Great Fire of London was a disaster waiting to happen. London of 1666 was a city of medieval houses made mostly of oak timber. Some of the poorer houses had walls covered with tar, which kept out the rain but made the structures more vulnerable to fire. Streets were narrow, houses were crowded together, and the firefighting methods of the day consisted of neighborhood bucket brigades armed with pails of water and primitive hand pumps. Citizens were instructed to check their homes for possible dangers, but there were many instances of carelessness.

So it was on the evening of September 1, 1666, when Thomas Farrinor, the king’s baker, failed to properly extinguish his oven. He went to bed, and sometime around midnight sparks from the smoldering embers ignited firewood lying beside the oven. Before long, his house was in flames. Farrinor managed to escape with his family and a servant out an upstairs window, but a bakery assistant died in the flames–the first victim.

Sparks from Farrinor’s bakery leapt across the street and set fire to straw and fodder in the stables of the Star Inn. From the Inn, the fire spread to Thames Street, where riverfront warehouses were packed full with flammable materials such as tallow for candles, lamp oil, spirits, and coal. These stores lit aflame or exploded, transforming the fire into an uncontrollable blaze. Bucket-bearing locals abandoned their futile efforts at firefighting and rushed home to evacuate their families and save their valuables.

It had been a hot, dry summer, and a strong wind further encouraged the flames. As the conflagration grew, city authorities struggled to tear down buildings and create a firebreak, but the flames repeatedly overtook them before they could complete their work. People fled into the Thames River dragging their possessions, and the homeless took refuge in the hills on the outskirts of London. Light from the Great Fire could be seen 30 miles away. On September 5, the fire slackened, and on September 6 it was brought under control. That evening, flames again burst forth in the Temple (the legal district), but the explosion of buildings with gunpowder extinguished the flames.

The Great Fire of London engulfed 13,000 houses, nearly 90 churches, and scores of public buildings. The old St. Paul’s Cathedral was destroyed, as were many other historic landmarks. As estimated 100,000 people were left homeless. Within days, King Charles II set about rebuilding his capital. The great architect Sir Christopher Wren designed a new St. Paul’s Cathedral with dozens of smaller new churches ranged around it like satellites. To prevent future fires, most new houses were built of brick or stone and separated by thicker walls. Narrow alleyways were forbidden and streets were made wider. Permanent fire departments, however, did not become a fixture in London until well into the 18th century.

In the 1670s, a memorial column commemorating the Great Fire of London was erected near the source of the calamity. Known as the Memorial, it was probably designed by the architect Robert Hooke, though some sources credit Christopher Wren. The column stands 202 feet above the pavement and features sculpture and engravings that tell the story of the conflagration. Even though an official inquiry into the Great Fire concluded that “the hand of God, a great wind, and a very dry season” caused it, an inscription on the Memorial (removed in 1830) blamed the disaster on the “treachery and malice of the Popish faction.”

In 1986, London’s bakers finally apologized to the lord mayor for setting fire to the city. Members of the Worshipful Company of Bakers gathered on Pudding Lane and unveiled a plaque acknowledging that one of their own, Thomas Farrinor, was guilty of causing the Great Fire of 1666.


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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 02 Sep 2017, 10:56 
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It taught folks something about thinking ahead a mite.


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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 03 Sep 2017, 10:04 
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1977
Sadaharu Oh hits 756th home run

On September 3, 1977, Sadaharu Oh of Japan’s Yomiuri Giants hits the 756th home run of his career, breaking Hank Aaron’s professional record for career home runs. Oh was the greatest Japanese player of his era, though not the most popular because of his half-Japanese, half-Chinese background. Nonetheless, his record-breaking homer was cause for celebration throughout Japan.

Sadaharu Oh, like Babe Ruth before him, began his career as a pitcher. He was a celebrity even before turning pro with the Yomiuri Giants in 1959: In the 1957 Spring Koshien Tournament, the high school baseball tournament that is among the biggest events in Japanese sport, Oh threw four shutouts over four consecutive days to help Waseda Jitsugyo High School to the championship. Soon after joining the Giants, he was moved to first base and developed a unique left-handed swing, featuring a “flamingo” leg lift reminiscent of New York Giants great Mel Ott and the productive journeyman slugger Darryl Strawberry. Oh and his more popular teammate Shigeo Nagashima–known as the “Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig of Japanese baseball”–led the Giants to 11 Nippon Baseball League championships.

On September 3, 1977, Oh entered the game between the Giants and their cross-town rival Yakult Swallows hitting .321. In the first inning, he was walked by Swallows pitcher Yasumiro Suzuki; it was the 2,180th walk of Oh’s career, a professional record at the time. When he returned to the plate in the third inning, the crowd’s enthusiasm at Korakuen Stadium in Tokyo had reached a fever pitch. The Swallows decided to employ the “Oh shift,” (similar to the “Williams shift” that American League teams employed against Ted Williams) in which the team moves to the right of the left-handed batter, anticipating that he will “pull” the ball to right field. The shift was no match for Oh: The slugger sent a 3-2 breaking ball 328 feet into the right field stands. The lucky fan who caught it was given an autographed ball, bat and trip to a hot springs spa in exchange for the home run ball.

Oh was presented with the Japanese Medal of Honor by Japanese Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda the day after the game. He retired in 1980 with 868 home runs, still a professional record.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 9-4
PostPosted: 04 Sep 2017, 10:15 
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1957
Edsel arrives in showrooms at last

On September 4, 1957–“E-Day,” according to its advertising campaign–the Ford Motor Company unveils the Edsel, the first new automobile brand produced by one of the Big Three car companies since 1938. (Although many people call it the “Ford Edsel,” in fact Edsel was a division all its own, like Lincoln or Mercury.) Thirteen hundred independent Edsel dealers offered four models for sale: the smaller Pacer and Ranger and the larger Citation and Corsair.

To many people, the Edsel serves as a symbol of corporate hubris at its worst: it was an over-hyped, over-sized, over-designed monstrosity. Other people believe the car was simply a victim of bad timing. When Ford executives began planning for the company’s new brand, the economy was booming and people were snapping up enormous gas-guzzlers as fast as automakers could build them. By the time the Edsel hit showrooms, however, the economic outlook was bad and getting worse. People didn’t want big, glitzy fin cars anymore; they wanted small, efficient ones instead. The Edsel was just ostentatious and expensive enough to give buyers pause.

At the same time, there is probably no car in the world that could have lived up to the Edsel’s hype. For months, the company had been running ads that simply pictured the car’s hood ornament and the line “The Edsel Is Coming.” Everything else about the car was top-secret: If dealers failed to keep their Edsels hidden, they’d lose their franchise. For the great E-Day unveiling, promotions and prizes–like a giveaway of 1,000 ponies–lured shoppers to showrooms.

When they got there, they found a car that had a distinctive look indeed–but not necessarily in a good way. Thanks to the big impact ring or “horse collar” in the middle of its front grille, it looked (one reporter said) like “a Pontiac pushing a toilet seat.” (Another called it “an Oldsmobile sucking a lemon.”) And its problems were more than cosmetic. Drivers changed gears by pushing buttons on the steering wheel, a system that was not easy to figure out. In addition, at highway speeds that famous hood ornament had a tendency to fly off and into the windshield.

In its first year, Edsel sold just 64,000 cars and lost $250 million ($2.5 billion today). After the 1960 model year, the company folded.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 9-5
PostPosted: 05 Sep 2017, 08:12 
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1964
“House of the Rising Sun” by the Animals tops the U.S. pop charts

To chart-topping American acts like Steve Lawrence (“Go Away Little Girl”) and Jimmy Gilmer and the Fireballs (“Sugar Shack”), 1963 had been a year filled with promise. And then came the Beatles, whose dramatic arrival in January 1964 clearly posed a commercial threat. By the middle of 1964, with Louis Armstrong (“Hello Dolly”) and Dean Martin (“Everybody Loves Somebody”) both having earned #1 pop hits, it may have seemed that the worst was over. But then came another blow in the form of the Animals, whose signature hit, “House of The Rising Sun,” reached #1 on the U.S. pop charts on this day in 1964. Steeped in a musical idiom very different from “She Loves You” and “I Wanna Hold Your Hand,” “House of The Rising Sun” hinted at an entirely new line of attack from the forces of the British Invasion.

While the Beatles traced their roots to early rock and roll, Eric Burdon, Alan Price and the other founding members of the Animals traced theirs to American R&B and blues—the same musical influences then shaping future members of the Rolling Stones, Cream and Led Zeppelin. Formed in their native Newcastle in 1962, the Animals got their big break playing as the opening act for Chuck Berry on his 1964 tour of England. While other bands tended to close their acts with hard-charging rock-and-roll numbers, the Animals made the idiosyncratic choice of closing theirs with a traditional song from the American south, reworked into a folk/blues/rock amalgam featuring Burdon’s growling lead vocal and Price’s pulsating organ line on the Vox Continental. “We were looking for a song that would grab people’s attention,” Burdon would later say, and it worked. Producer Mickie Most heard the Animals in 1964 and quickly arranged a recording contract. “House of The Rising Sun” was recorded in just 15 minutes in May 1964 and went on to top both the American and British pop charts just four months later.

While some have claimed that the Animals’ rendition of “House of The Rising Sun” was lifted fairly directly from the version Bob Dylan recorded for his 1962 debut album, Dylan himself appears to have lifted his from fellow Greenwich Village folkie Dave Van Ronk. In any event, it was the Animals’ version that topped the pop charts on this day in 1964 and made Dylan himself “jump out of his car seat” with enthusiasm when he first heard it on the radio.


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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 05 Sep 2017, 10:49 
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POST-JACKING AND PIXEL SIZE CZAR (P.J.A.P.S.C.)
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Listened to the song yesterday, again. :D


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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 05 Sep 2017, 17:34 
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trappintime wrote:
Listened to the song yesterday, again. :D


I thought your favorite song was, There Coming To Take Me Away Haha.... :lol:

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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 05 Sep 2017, 18:09 
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trapperrick wrote:
trappintime wrote:
Listened to the song yesterday, again. :D


I thought your favorite song was, There Coming To Take Me Away Haha.... :lol:


Listened to that one too. 8)


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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 05 Sep 2017, 19:56 
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trapperrick wrote:
trappintime wrote:
Listened to the song yesterday, again. :D


I thought your favorite song was, There Coming To Take Me Away Haha.... :lol:


No Rick, Trap's favorite song is " Bad Boys " what ya gonna do , what ya gonna do when they come for you ? :shock: :twisted: :lol:

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 Post subject: Re: Today in history.
PostPosted: 05 Sep 2017, 20:32 
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POST-JACKING AND PIXEL SIZE CZAR (P.J.A.P.S.C.)
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doc9013 wrote:
trapperrick wrote:
trappintime wrote:
Listened to the song yesterday, again. :D


I thought your favorite song was, There Coming To Take Me Away Haha.... :lol:


No Rick, Trap's favorite song is " Bad Boys " what ya gonna do , what ya gonna do when they come for you ? :shock: :twisted: :lol:



I listened to Copperhead road too. :D


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 Post subject: Today in history. 9-6
PostPosted: 06 Sep 2017, 09:18 
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1522
Magellan’s expedition circumnavigates globe

One of Ferdinand Magellan’s five ships–the Vittoria–arrives at SanlÚcar de Barrameda in Spain, thus completing the first circumnavigation of the world. The Vittoria was commanded by Basque navigator Juan SebastiÁn de Elcano, who took charge of the vessel after the murder of Magellan in the Philippines in April 1521. During a long, hard journey home, the people on the ship suffered from starvation, scurvy, and harassment by Portuguese ships. Only Elcano, 17 other Europeans, and four Indians survived to reach Spain in September 1522.

On September 20, 1519, Magellan set sail from Spain in an effort to find a western sea route to the rich Spice Islands of Indonesia. In command of five ships and 270 men, Magellan sailed to West Africa and then to Brazil, where he searched the South American coast for a strait that would take him to the Pacific. He searched the RÍo de la Plata, a large estuary south of Brazil, for a way through; failing, he continued south along the coast of Patagonia. At the end of March 1520, the expedition set up winter quarters at Port St. Julian. On Easter day at midnight, the Spanish captains mutinied against their Portuguese captain, but Magellan crushed the revolt, executing one of the captains and leaving another ashore when his ship left St. Julian in August.

On October 21, he finally discovered the strait he had been seeking. The Strait of Magellan, as it became known, is located near the tip of South America, separating Tierra del Fuego and the continental mainland. Only three ships entered the passage; one had been wrecked and another deserted. It took 38 days to navigate the treacherous strait, and when ocean was sighted at the other end Magellan wept with joy. He was the first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic. His fleet accomplished the westward crossing of the ocean in 99 days, crossing waters so strangely calm that the ocean was named “Pacific,” from the Latin word pacificus, meaning “tranquil.” By the end, the men were out of food and chewed the leather parts of their gear to keep themselves alive. On March 6, 1521, the expedition landed at the island of Guam.

Ten days later, they dropped anchor at the Philippine island of Cebu–they were only about 400 miles from the Spice Islands. Magellan met with the chief of Cebú, who after converting to Christianity persuaded the Europeans to assist him in conquering a rival tribe on the neighboring island of Mactan. In subsequent fighting on April 27, Magellan was hit by a poisoned arrow and left to die by his retreating comrades.

After Magellan’s death, the survivors, in two ships, sailed on to the Moluccas and loaded the hulls with spice. One ship attempted, unsuccessfully, to return across the Pacific. The other ship, the Vittoria, continued west under the command of Juan SebastiÁn de Elcano. The vessel sailed across the Indian Ocean, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and arrived at the Spanish port of SanlÚcar de Barrameda on September 6, 1522, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the globe. The Vittoria then sailed up the Guadalquivir River, reaching Seville a few days later.

Elcano was later appointed to lead a fleet of seven ships on another voyage to Moluccas on behalf of Emperor Charles V. He died of scurvy en route.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 9-7
PostPosted: 07 Sep 2017, 09:50 
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1896
Electric car wins the first auto race in the United States

On September 7, 1896, an electric car built by the Riker Electric Motor Company wins the first auto race in the United States, at the Narragansett Trotting Park–a mile-long dirt oval at the state fairgrounds that was normally used for horse racing–in Cranston, Rhode Island. Automobile companies sponsored the race to show off their newfangled electric-, steam-, and gas-powered vehicles to an awestruck audience. The carmakers’ gimmick worked: About 60,000 fairgoers attended the event, and many more people read about it in newspapers and magazines.

Seven cars entered the race. Along with the Riker Electric, there were five internal-combustion cars and one other battery-powered machine, this one built by the Electric Carriage and Wagon Company. The race began slowly (“Get a horse!” the spectators shouted as the automobiles wheezed at the starting line), but the Riker soon pulled ahead and won the race easily, finishing its five laps in about 15 minutes. The other electric car came in second, and a gas-powered Duryea took third.

Rhode Island is probably not the first place most people think of when they think of American automobile racing, but car racing in the Ocean State actually has a rich history. That Narragansett race was only the beginning: The Cranston track drew so many spectators that cities all over the state soon built dirt ovals of their own. For its part, the original raceway got so much use that its owners had to close it in 1914 for renovations. When it reopened the next year, it was like nothing any car-racing fan had ever seen. The new track was a paved, banked “Super Speedway” designed for 100-mile races.

On September 18, 1915, 50,000 people came to the first contest at the new park, where they watched the celebrity racer Eddie Rickenbacker coast to victory over a field of famous drivers in spectacular cars. Unfortunately for the Narragansett track’s investors, however, Rhode Islanders’ enthusiasm for car-racing waned as other kinds of mass entertainments grew more popular. The Cranston raceway closed for good in 1923.


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 Post subject: Today in history. 9-8
PostPosted: 08 Sep 2017, 09:54 
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1810
The Pacific Fur Company’s first ship leaves for Oregon

On this day in 1810, the sailing ship Tonquin leaves New York with 33 employees of Jacob Astor’s new Pacific Fur Company on board. Six months later, the Tonquinarrived at the mouth of the Columbia River, where Astor’s men established the town of Astoria and began trading for furs with the Indians. Thus began the first major American involvement in the lucrative far western fur trade.

During the colonial era, the powerful British Hudson’s Bay Company, along with several French companies based in Montreal, had dominated the North American fur trade. But slowly and timidly, Americans began to establish their own fur companies in the early nineteenth century, particularly after Thomas Jefferson doubled the size of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-6) reported that the vast new American territory was rich in beaver.

Based on their explorations, Lewis and Clark suggested that furs could be carried over the Rockies by horse to the Columbia River and from there shipped to the Orient more cheaply than the British or French could move furs eastward to Europe. Recognizing a rare business opportunity, the German-born immigrant John Jacob Astor organized his Pacific Fur Company and dispatched the Tonquin for the Oregon coast to try and make Lewis and Clark’s proposal a reality. But while the small trading post of Astoria initially quickly proved a success, the American control of the Pacific Northwest fur trade did not last. By late 1813, Astor’s partners, who were mostly Canadian, decided to sell out to the British North West Company, and during the War of 1812 the British Navy took control of Astoria.

With the British temporarily dominating the region, Astor decided to dissolve the Pacific Fur Company and focus his efforts on his American Fur Company, an enterprise that eventually came to control three-quarters of the American fur trade. Despite the loss of his first Pacific coast outpost at Astoria, Astor’s profits from his American Fur Company, the War of 1812, and large investments in real estate, eventually made him the wealthiest American of his day and established one of the great enduring family fortunes.


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